Girl  Evangelists

The Fundamentals (sometimes titled The Fundamentals: A Testimony to Truth) was a multi-volume work funded anonymously by two conservative laymen, brothers Lyman and Milton Stewart, who were wealthy Christian philanthropists. The original publication was a collection of ninety essays in twelve volumes, defending classic Protestant beliefs, and attacking a range of ideologies, from Catholicism (which was often referred to as Romanism by Protestants of the time) to the newer Christian movements (such as Christian Science, Mormonism and the Jehovah’s Witnesses), and theological modernism in any of its forms. They also attacked atheism and evolutionism, though one article allowed for allegorical interpretation of the story of the Garden of Eden and of Adam and Eve, which most fundamentalists then and now take literally.

Volumes of the original publication (1910-1915) were sent free to some 70,000 ministers, missionaries and other church workers. The work was republished in 1917 by the Bible Institute of Los Angeles (now called Biola), under the direction of R.A. Torrey. [Lyman Stewart had been a co-founder of Biola.]

These volumes largely defined the Fundamentalist Movement.

For further reading:

George M. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture. 2nd. ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

George M. Marsden, Understanding Fundamentalism andEvangelicalism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1991).

The Fundamentals